A group of highly respected researchers recently put together a comprehensive summary of the 10 synergistic ways that ketones can be used as immunometabolic therapies in the context of viral diseases.
The paper features some of known mechanistic targets, here's a short list of the 10 main mechanisms discussed:
- Ketone metabolism can increase levels of NADPH which helps to decrease oxidative stress. Decreased NADPH activity is involved in lowered glutathione levels and increase susceptibility to infection.
- Beta-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) has been shown to increase levels of Nrf2, and important transcription factor involved in activating genes that increase levels of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and phase II detoxification genes.
- Inhibiting the NLRP3 which is involved in preventing excessive inflammation. Bats have been shown to coexist with Coronaviruses by dampening their NLRP3 inflammasome activity
- Inhibiting HCAR2 and NF-kappa B activation; which has been shown to be up-regulated in diabetic patients.
- Affecting mitochondrial permeability which many viruses use to make cells more susceptible to apoptosis
- Ketones may inhibit glycolysis, which has been shown to inhibit viral replication
- Ketones preserve cardiac function, which has been shown to be a problem in infected patients.
- Ketones can improve tolerance to tissue hypoxia, Dominic D'Agostino’s lab has been studying this for years.
- Ketones have been shown to improve blood sugar control. We know from two different retrospective studies poor glycemic control is linked with poor outcomes amongst infected patients.
- Ketones have been shown to have anti–catabolic properties and may preserve cognitive function in sub-optimal environment