• Enteroendocrine cells and why they are so important
• Metabolites released from enteroendocrine cells: the local and systemic effects
• Key herbs, phytochemicals, proteins, and prebiotics that beneficially affect enteroendocrine cells
• How prebiotics improve enteroendocrine cell function
What are gut hormones?
After you eat, the 50–70 percent rise in insulin, the pancreatic hormone that regulates blood sugar, is contingent upon the proper secretion of incretins, hormones released from the intestinal tract. (The most widely understood incretin hormones are called GLP-1, GLP-2, CCK, and PYY.) In addition to their integral role in blood sugar and insulin regulation, incretins govern appetite, growth of intestinal tissue, and intestinal transit and emptying.
Bariatric surgery and the new generation of antidiabetic medications are linked to rapid improvements in blood levels of these incretins as well as other molecules, such as leptin, that regulate appetite.