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02:19 Benefits of Blood Ketones: Beta-hydroxybutyrate, the main ketone body, effects many signaling pathways throughout your body. Being in a state of nutritional ketosis is not just about the benefits of low blood glucose and low blood insulin levels. Beta-hydroxybutyrate is a fatty acid-like metabolite that is produced when you have a low carb high fat diet. It changes the way our genes are expressed. It induces histone deacetylase inhibitors, which is now the focus of much cancer research. They make DNA more compact and tight, which protects DNA from oxidative and free radical damage, which is linked to cancer and ageing.
04:02 Ketones and Athletic Performance: Your metabolic engine is far more efficient when you are in ketosis, so there is less damage to tissues and recovery is faster.
04:44 Calories In/Calories Out: When you are in a state of nutritional ketosis, you do not need to snack to support athletic performance. Athletes in ketosis eat only once or twice a day. Your body becomes so much more efficient at extracting calories. In nutritional ketosis, there is not a great deal of burning calories to make heat. Instead calories are burned to make cellular energy. Thus, you do not need as much food. Increased blood leucine levels and muscle protein synthesis make lean muscle more efficient.
06:29 Calorie Restriction and Muscle Loss: Calorie restriction is linked to longevity and reduce incidence of cancer. On a high carb diet, you burn through glucose quickly and you are hungry again in short order. In ketosis satiety mechanisms are being well regulated and you can go much longer without food. People think that when you restrict calories or do intermittent or prolonged fasting, you lose muscle. Fasting allows your bowel a little break. Feast/famine makes evolutionary sense due to the lack of refrigeration and preservation of foods. Research shows that people who restrict calories have increased telomeres, the protective caps on chromosomes. This is associated with longevity. It is not logical that your body would burn muscle during short term fasting when there is other fuel. Our ancestors would be weakened and less likely to procure more food. Long term fasting, however, would catabolize muscle for cellular energy once fat was consumed.
11:02 Pre and Post Exercise Nutrition: We have been taught to drink our protein shakes, but it is time to rethink this. Mike will still supplement with branch chain amino acids. Leucine increases muscle synthesis and will not drop you out of ketosis. Whey protein assists in making glutathione.
13:03 Post Exercise Blood Glucose and Blood Ketones: When you are going all out in your cardio, you cannot utilize ketones to make cellular energy in the form of ATP utilizing oxygen. Nutritional ketosis utilizes oxygen to break down the ketone bodies to make acetyl-CoA and push it through the mitochondria. It is very efficient. Glycolysis that fuels all out cardio splits sugar makes pyruvate and lactic acid and a small amount of ATP. There is a lot of metabolic waste. Your body raises blood glucose, adapting to the activity. It is a primal fight/flight adaptation. Blood sugar levels should recede within about 60 minutes. Consuming carbohydrates within this window because it will heighten blood sugar and insulin and then crash.
16:08 Post Workout Window: Wait about 60 minutes in the post workout window to have glucose if you had a prolonged workout and need a swift recovery. You do not need carbs if you are doing HIIT training for metabolic, antiaging, neurological and cardiovascular benefits. If you depleted your muscle glycogen, elongated sugar molecules are split to make cellular energy by way of glycolysis. The theory is that elevated blood sugars post activity is the restoration of these sugars. Even if you are in nutritional ketosis, muscle glycogen replenishment is better than that in athletes who are on a high carbohydrate diet. Eat a few blueberries. We should not forget the importance of the role of the microbiome in metabolic pathways.
19:05 Blood Glycerol: It is a direct marker of lipolysis, the freeing of fat stored in fat cells, adipocytes. In a study of keto-adapted and non-keto-adapted endurance athletes, blood glycerol was measured every 30 minutes. A high level of glycerol means that your fat cells are releasing fat, breaking up stored energy to be used as fuel. The keto-adapted athletes, burned 1.4 grams of fat per minute. Body building diets of 4 to 6 meals per day with carbs before and after workouts does not burn the fat or increase lean muscle mass as well as a keto adapted diet.
22:22 How Lean is Too Lean? Strength training tells you how healthy your muscle is. If your strength is declining, something is going wrong. Monitor how you feel, your hormones, blood sugar, hunger cravings and energy levels. Many physicians say that when their female patients go below 20 percent body fat, hormone imbalances are common. Deanna finds that being keto-adapted has helped keep her hormones balanced and believes that much has to do with better tuned stress response from nutritional ketosis.
26:44 Blood Ketones as Messenger Molecules: Blood ketones effect epigenetic signaling and inflammatory signaling. The inflammasone, the MLRP3, is an upstream inflammatory pathway. Beta-hydroxybutyrate of the ketone body suppresses this pathway.
27:39 Ketones and Brain Health/Function: When you have high blood ketones and low blood sugar you are forcing your body to use aerobic metabolism through the mitochondria. All cells need ATP, cellular energy produced by your mitochondria. Research shows that in the brains of individuals that have mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, autism and even ADHD/ADD, sugar is used for fuel in an anaerobic way, like what your body does during long duration intense cardio. This creates damaging acidic metabolic waste that effect cell membrane structure and impacts cellular energy production. Nutritional ketosis is much more efficient and, most importantly, ketone bodies effect signaling pathways throughout the body. Research shows that these mirror the calorie restricted metabolism, linked with increased telomere function and mitochondrial function.
30:10 Children and Nutritional Ketosis: Mike believes that children should also be in ketosis. Our ancestors did not make different meals for kids. All parents want their child to have increased resilience, increased parasympathetic response, reduced inflammation, and reduced free radical oxidative stress, as well as increased mitochondrial density and function. Adult diseases are now in children and prevalence is increasing. Nutritional ketosis in children is not only important for their health and mental health, but this will in turn impact the health of their children and grandchildren through the affect upon their genomes.
33:24 Carbohydrates: The carbohydrates that Mike and Deanna discuss are beyond the processed, out-of-the-box/can/bag carbs, but real food carbohydrates like vegetables. Some vegetables have more carbs than others. You can eat a ton of vegetables and still stay within the 30 to 40 grams total carbohydrate range.
33:55 Track Your Macros: You can determine how your body reacts to food initially by keeping a food diary. What gives you the best fuel? What you cannot track, you cannot improve. Everyone is different. Carbs, in the form of sweet potato, butternut squash or cluster dextrose becomes rocket fuel for the keto adapted when consumed before an anaerobic workout.
37:17 Protein for the Keto Adapted: Mike and Deanna have dramatically reduced their protein intake and retained muscle and strength. Since being keto adapted shifts metabolic pathways, science needs to catch up with what this means for the keto adapted. There are over 140 different proteomic metabolites in the muscle that are increased when you are in a state of nutritional ketosis. Dietary recommendations are based on the carbohydrate eating, sugar burning athlete and do not apply to the keto adapted.
40:41 Inflamaging: You become more inflamed as you age. The inflammasone is the gas pedal on inflammatory processes. Multiple studies have shown that levels of inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin 1 beta, TNF alfa, interleukin 6, are decreased when you are in nutritional ketosis. Nutritional ketosis offsets sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass. When you are keto adapted, your body does not generate as many free radicals and antioxidant mechanisms are upregulated.
42:44 Cancer Prevention: DNA damage can shut off tumor suppressor genes. We all have cancer growing within us, but our immune systems consume them before it becomes a problem. With nutritional ketosis, our cells are more protected. In autoimmunity and cancer, those immune cells and cancer cells thrive on sugar and the metabolic waste from anaerobic metabolism. It is called the Warburg Effect. This process is blocked when you are in nutritional ketosis. You can literally starve cancer cells. Research shows a correlation between cancer and mitochondrial damage. Burning sugar does not require healthy mitochondria. If you are burning ketones, you need healthy mitochondria and your body adapts to make it so. Ten percent of our body weight is mitochondria. Calorie restriction, exercise, nutritional ketosis and periodic fasting all stimulate mitochondria. The third leading cause of mortality in the world is cancer.
48:29 Saturated Fat: Mike had been anti-fat for a long time. Much microbiome research shows that high fat diets lead to an increased absorption of pro-inflammatory bacterial particulates called endotoxin. Mike has a hypothesis that this endotoxemia is short lived. When you are in nutritional ketosis, you are using fat for fuel and releasing beta-hydroxybutyrate, a powerful epigenetic anti-inflammatory compound, which may mitigate the endotoxemia. Studies to date have not been done with keto adapted participants. Polyphenolic compounds and fibers can mitigate the endotoxin absorption from butter and ghee. Consuming animal fat may have other issues when you consider that endocrine disrupting chemicals and other toxins are stored in fat tissue.
54:10 The Best Sources of Fat: Butter, avocado, coconut oil, ghee, and nuts and seeds that have been soaked.