Scientists at University of Bristol uncovered a new mechanism linking the the S, also known as the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 with vascular disease. This finding should emphasize healthy lifestyle change, smoking cessation, exercise and walking as preventative measures to lessen the vascular damage during infection.
Pericytes are vascular mural cells embedded in the basement membrane of blood microvessels. They extend their processes along capillaries, pre-capillary arterioles and post-capillary venules. CNS pericytes are uniquely positioned in the neurovascular unit between endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons (REF: Sweeney 2016)
02:42 The spike protein in SARS COVI 2 may alter the function in the cell membrane of critical cells within the heart. This was found using human heart cells in a petri dish.
03:07 Spike proteins from the virus seemingly go everywhere in the body and may be found in the urine, independent of the virus. This may underscore the importance of exercise and cardiovascular health in communities of high-spread.
03:27 Spike protein found to be hydrolyzed off the virus, latching to receptors, effecting the function of the heart Pericytes.
06:32 These soluble S protein fragments may have a role in blood clotting. In mouse models, the S protein alone exerts microvascular damage and induces hyper-inflammation.
07:47 It could be a major problem if one of the mechanisms driving immunization side effects is the spike protein.
09:07 The spike protein activated or enhanced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines typical of the cytokine storm in COVID.
10:32 Fragments of the spike protein may elicit damage independently of the infection and beyond the infection sites.
Avolio, E., Carrabba, M., Milligan, R., Williamson, M. K., Beltrami, A. P., Gupta, K., et al. (2021). The SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein disrupts human cardiac pericytes function through CD147-receptor-mediated signalling: a potential non-infective mechanism of COVID-19 microvascular disease. bioRxiv, 2020.12.21.423721. http://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.21.423721
Heads, R. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 glycoprotein is a TLR4 agonist, upregulates ACE2 expression and induces pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage polarisation, 1–30. http://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.11.455921
Sweeney, M. D., Ayyadurai, S., & Zlokovic, B. V. (2016). Pericytes of the neurovascular unit: key functions and signaling pathways. Nature Neuroscience, 19(6), 771–783. http://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4288
Administrator. (2021). Evidence for SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein in the Urine of COVID-19 patients, 1–42. http://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.27.21250637